Harar remained an independent, theocratic state, until, it was occupied in 1875 by the Egyptians, who killed its ex-ruler, Amir Abd al-Shakur.
The Egyptian rule lasted only a decade, after which Amir Abdullahi took over, only to be defeated in 1887 by King (later Emperor) Menelik, after which Harar became an integral part of the Ethiopian Empire.
The town was an important trading center, with its own currency and with a population trading far and wide, particularly traveling as far as Egypt, India and close-by Arabia, while others engaged in agriculture, growing excellent coffee, as well as the mild stimulant chat.
The city was renowned for Islamic scholarship and the production of a sizeable Islamic literature, a culture that is still alive and well. Jegol is also known for the beautiful handicrafts, including weaving, basketry, and bookbinding.
After the city was incorporated into the Ethiopian Empire, its first ruler was Ras Makonnen, Menelik's cousin and the father of the late Emperor Haile Selassie, who himself was born in the town of Ejersa Goro, in the vicinity of Harar, and who was also its one time governor.
Amir Abdullahi was the last independent ruler of Harar (1885 - 1887) before it fell under the control of Shewa.